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Helen and Sol Krawitz Holocaust Memorial Education Center

Shimon and Sara Birnbaum Jewish Community Center

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Before 1933

World War I (1914–1918) devastated Europe and created new countries. The years that followed saw the continent struggle to recover from the death or injury of tens of millions of soldiers and civilians, as well as catastrophic damage to property and industry. In 1933, over 9 million Jews lived in Europe (1.7% of the total population)—working and raising families in the harsh reality of the worldwide economic depression. German Jews numbered about 500,000 or less than 1% of the national population.

Studio portrait of Zeni Farbenblum and her son, Rudy, in Mukachevo, Czechoslovakia.
Credit: United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. “Learn About the Holocaust”
www.ushmm.org/learn/timeline-of-events/before-1933; Date accessed: October 29, 2017